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Prevention Campaign on Norwalk Viruses in School of International Education

Dear all,
Spring is the peak season of all kinds of epidemics. To create healthy learning and living environment and positively response to the prevention of Norwalk viruses, we take the following actions:
Norwalk virus is the most common pathogen of acute gastroenteritis. This kind of virus genetic diversifies and is of high variation. It will transform to new variants every few years and people can be infected many times in their lives. Norwalk virus infection sometimes takes the form of self limiting illness and can be better after prevention.
Clinical features:
The most common symptoms are diarrhea,vomit, regurgitation, nausea and stomachache, and in some cases, fever, headache and body aches. Most patients can make a full recovery within 1-3 days. Frequent vomit or diarrhea could lead to dewatering or other serious health problems, especially among young children, seniors and other underlying diseases patients. Dewatering is characterized by oliguria, drymouth, dry throat and dizzy. Crying with no tears or little tears, abnormal sleepy or restless may occur among children.
Transmission:
Norwalk virus is highly infectious and everyone can be infected. It can be checked in faeces before sick to 2 weeks after recovery. But it is the most infectious period during the period of sick and three days after recovery. It normally is infected by the following methods:
(1)Eat or drink infected foods or water;
(2)Touch the infected objects or surface and then touch mouth;
(3)Contact Norwalk viruses infected patients, such as take care of them, share foods or dishes.
Outbreaks of Norwalk virus infection often occur in closed communities, such as childcare facility, kindergarten, school, nursing home and cruise ship.
Treatment:
There is no specific medicine to treat Norwalk virus infected patients. Patients should replenish enough water in case of dewatering. As for mild dehydration patients, sports drink or other drink (without caffeine or alcohol) can have certain replenishment effects, but they can’t replenish important nutrients and minerals. Therefore, the most efficient treatment is to buy oral rehydration. As for serious dewatering patients, it is advisable to take infusion treatment in time.
Prevention:
(1)Hand washing with soap and water is an effective method, especially before meals or after toilet.
(2)Fruits and vegetables should be cleaned carefully, oyster and other shellfish sea foods should go on deep processing. Norwalk virus has high resistance, which can survive under 60℃ or rapid steam.
(3)Norwalk virus infected patients can’t prepare or process food or accompany others during the period of sick and 3 days after recovery.
(4)Clean the vomit or faeces with chlorine bleach or other disinfectants in time. Take off dirty clothes and wash them immediately with rubber gloves or disposable gloves. Wash hands carefully after washing clothes.
Requirements:
(1)Make general cleaning in terms of dormitory and keep dormitories ventilated.
(2)Take care of personal hygiene and avoid going to crowded areas.
(3)Go to hospital once feeling unwell.


                                                                                       School of International Education

 

国际教育学院关于诺如病毒的预防知识宣传

全体学生:

春季是各种传染病高发期,为营造卫生健康的学习生活环境,积极响应学校对诺如病毒预防工作的相关安排,国际教育学院对诺如病毒的预防工作安排如下。

诺如病毒是急性肠胃炎最常见的病原体,该病毒基因多样且高度变异,每隔数年就会出现新变异株,人一生中可多次获得感染。诺如病毒感染通常表现为自限性疾病,预后良好。

临床特征:

最常见的症状是腹泻、呕吐、反胃、恶心和胃痛,其他包括发热、头痛和全身酸痛等。多数患者发病后1-3天即可康复。如频繁呕吐或腹泻,可导致脱水,引起严重的健康问题,尤其常见于幼小儿童、老年人和基础性疾病患者。脱水主要表现为少尿、口干、咽干、站立时感头晕目眩,在儿童中可表现为啼哭无泪或少泪、异常瞌睡或烦躁。

传播:

诺如病毒传染性强,所有人群均易感。病人发病前至康复后2周,均可在粪便中检到诺如病毒,但患病期和康复后三天内是传染性最强的时期。通常通过以下途径获得感染:

(1)食用或饮用被诺如病毒污染的食物或水;

(2)触摸被诺如病毒污染的物体或表面,然后将手指放入口中;

(3)接触过诺如病毒感染患者,如照顾患者、与患者分享食物或共用餐具。

诺如病毒在密闭场所中(如托幼机构、幼儿园、学校、养老院、游船等)传播速度快,易引起暴发。

治疗:

尚无特异的抗病毒药物。患者应补充足够的水分以预防脱水。轻度脱水时,运动饮料或其他饮品(不含咖啡因或酒精)可起到一定的补水效果,但不能补充重要的营养成分和矿物质,因此,在药店购买口服补水溶液是最有效的治疗方法。严重脱水时应及时住院输液治疗。

预防:

(1)勤洗手,用肥皂和清水认真洗手,尤其在如厕后及进食前。

(2)水果和蔬菜食用前应认真清洗,牡蛎和其他贝类海产品应深度加工后食用。诺如病毒抵抗力较强,在60℃高温或经快速汽蒸仍可存活。

(3)诺如病毒感染病人患病期至康复后3天内不能准备、加工食物或为其他患者陪护。

(4)及时用含氯漂白剂或其他有效消毒剂清洗消毒被患者呕吐物或粪便污染的表面,立即脱掉和清洗被污染的衣物或床单等,清洗时应戴上橡胶或一次性手套,并在清洗后认真洗手。

要求:

(1)所有学生以寝室为单位进行大扫除,保持寝室通风。

(2)注意个人卫生,尽量少往人群密集处。

(3)如有任何不适症状,请及时就医。

 

武汉理工大学国际教育学院

 




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